Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2023
Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2023
Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 42-2023.
Về quản lý môi trường
– Mạng tích chập biểu đồ không gian thời gian đa nhiệm đa nhiệm để dự đoán chất lượng không khí.
– Hướng tới nền kinh tế tái tạo: Thang đo sáng tạo để đo lường nhận thức của người dân về nền kinh tế tuần hoàn.
– Thương mại độc hại và nghiêm ngặt về môi trường: Tìm hiểu tác động đến tăng trưởng kinh tế trong G20.
– Quyết định định giá địa điểm có cân nhắc đến lượng khí thải carbon: Cách tiếp cận lý thuyết trò chơi hành vi.
– Đánh giá hiệu quả của cơ chế quy hoạch đô thị tăng cường giải pháp dựa vào thiên nhiên trong việc hình thành các thành phố chống chịu lũ lụt.
– Đánh giá chính sách tiết kiệm năng lượng sản phẩm của EU: Chúng ta đã đạt được gì trong 40 năm ?
– Nước thải bệnh viện và đô thị hình thành ma trận và điện trở hoạt động của màng sinh học môi trường.
– Làm thế nào để phát triển các chiến lược giảm thiểu ngập úng cho từng địa điểm cụ thể? Hiểu các động lực không đồng nhất về mặt không gian của ngập úng đô thị.
– Phát triển du lịch, quy định về môi trường và quản lý tài nguyên thiên nhiên: Bằng chứng từ các nước G20.
Về môi trường đô thị
– Tác động đan xen của quá trình đô thị hóa và thay đổi lớp phủ mặt đất đến khí hậu đô thị và nông nghiệp tại thành phố Aurangabad (MS), Ấn Độ sử dụng nền tảng google Earth Engine.
– Tác động và phân tích của dự án kết nối hệ thống nước đô thị đến môi trường nước khu vực dựa trên Mô hình quản lý nước mưa (SWMM).
– Nghiên cứu và đánh giá dựa trên DPSR về các con đường ảnh hưởng của trình độ phát triển đô thị Thượng Hải đến tiềm năng phát thải khí mêtan trên sông trong giai đoạn 2011–2020.
– Giải mã tác động đến chất lượng nước do sự thay đổi khả năng di chuyển của con người do COVID-19 ở các cửa sông xung quanh Thành phố New York.
– Đánh giá sự thay đổi thảm thực vật đô thị bằng Chỉ số thực vật khác biệt chuẩn hóa (NDVI) cho nghiên cứu dịch tễ học.
– Đánh giá tính bền vững đô thị ở quy mô khu vực lân cận: Tích hợp mô hình không gian và phương pháp ra quyết định đa tiêu chí.
– Vai trò của việc phân loại rác trong việc cải thiện tình trạng ô nhiễm không khí của cơ sở xử lý chất thải rắn đô thị.
– Lượng phát thải CO2 thấp bất ngờ từ vùng nước nội địa đô thị bị xáo trộn nhiều.
– Giám sát dài hạn SARS-CoV-2 trong nước thải và ước tính số ca mắc COVID-19: Ứng dụng dịch tễ học dựa trên nước thải.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
– Hệ thống oxy hóa Fenton xử lý chất thải rắn nhiễm dầu mỏ: Tiến bộ và triển vọng.
– Tác động của sản xuất công nghiệp và chất lượng không khí bằng viễn thám đến nồng độ nitơ dioxide và các tác động liên quan: Phương pháp kinh tế lượng.
– Hiểu biết sâu sắc về những tiến bộ gần đây của việc bình ổn hóa chất thải nông nghiệp để sản xuất khí sinh học bền vững.
– Đánh giá quan trọng về tách và chiết scandium từ chất thải công nghiệp: Phương pháp, khó khăn và cơ chế.
– Cách tiếp cận hướng tới hiệu quả cho các khu công nghiệp sinh thái toàn cầu.
– Một phương pháp tiếp cận tổng hợp hiệu quả và thân thiện với môi trường nhằm loại bỏ kim loại nặng khỏi nước thải công nghiệp và đồng tạo dầu sinh học bằng rơm lúa mì thông qua hóa lỏng thủy nhiệt.
– Các Khu trình diễn Công nghiệp Sinh thái Quốc gia ảnh hưởng như thế nào đến hiệu quả sử dụng năng lượng tổng thể của đô thị? Bằng chứng từ một thí nghiệm gần như tự nhiên.
– Nghiên cứu hoạt tính lignin từ bã mía điều (Anarcadium occidentale L) làm chất hấp phụ cho thuốc nhuộm tổng hợp công nghiệp.
– Phân tích phân bổ ngân sách carbon cấp tiểu ngành cho ngành sắt thép của Ấn Độ.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
Pleased to present to our valued readers the International Environmental Bulletin No. 42-2023, featuring the following key topics:
URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Multi-view multi-task spatiotemporal graph convolutional network for air quality prediction
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 893, 1 October 2023, 164699
Accurate air quality prediction is a crucial but arduous task for intelligent cities. Predictable air quality can advise governments on environmental governance and residents on travel. However, complex correlations (i.e., intra-sensor correlation and inter-sensor correlation) make prediction challenging. Previous work considered the spatial, temporal, or combination of the two to model. However, we observe that there are also logical semantic and temporal, and spatial relations. Therefore, we propose a multi-view multi-task spatiotemporal graph convolutional network (M2) for air quality prediction. We encode three views, including spatial view (using GCN to model the correlation between adjacent stations in geographic space), logical view (using GCN to model the correlation between stations in logical space), and temporal view (using GRU to model the correlation among historical data). Meanwhile, M2 chooses a multi-task learning paradigm that includes a classification task (auxiliary task, coarse granularity prediction of air quality level) and a regression task (main task, fine granularity prediction of air quality value) to predict jointly. And the experimental results on two real-world air quality datasets demonstrate our model performances over the state-of-art methods.
2. Towards a regenerative economy: An innovative scale to measure people’s awareness of the circular economy
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138390
The concept of the circular economy (CE) has gained attention as a means of achieving environmental goals and economic sustainability. People’s awareness of CE is critical in achieving a more circular and regenerative economy, but there is a lack of consistent tools to measure this awareness. This research aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure people’s awareness of CE. A systematic literature review identifies the main constructs of this scale, and the validation process includes structured interviews with experts, use of the Q-Sort method, statistical methods, and a pre-test with 144 respondents using exploratory factor analysis and non-probability sampling. The final proposed scale is tested via a survey of 820 respondents, with confirmatory factor analysis used to ensure reliability and validity. The proposed scale can be used to assess people’s awareness of different CE strategies and, thus inform strategies, actions, and policies to achieve a more regenerative economy. The scale represents a theoretical contribution by providing uniformity and can be applied in different contexts. It also has practical applications for companies and governments to measure the level of awareness people have towards CE.
3. Toxic trade and environmental stringency: Exploring the impact on economic growth in the G20
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 422, 10 October 2023, 138516
This study investigates the impact of trade on environment and economic growth in G20 countries from 1990 to 2019, for environmentally sensitive goods (ESGs). Traditional and modern approach of hypothesizing Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), are employed. Cross-Sectional-Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) model is used to determine short-run and long-run cointegration between environment, growth and trade variables. To analyze the asymmetric impacts of environmental stringency on carbon emissions, Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) model is used.
The results demonstrate that trade-induced EKC of ESGs for G20 is inverted-U shaped. Further, the study shows that trade-induced economic growth results in higher carbon emission, but mitigates environmental degradation at an early stage. Stringency has asymmetric effects on carbon emission, as observed from the findings.
Given the controversial nature of research on the environmental impact of trade, particularly with respect to environmentally sensitive items, the present study is unique in terms of selecting the research topic and adds specific value to the literature in comparing the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality, with and without-trade, of toxic product. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of an asymmetrical analysis of the relationship between legislative strictness and environmental degradation from a policy-making perspective of G20.
4. Location-pricing decisions with carbon emission considerations: A behavioral game-theoretic approach
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 422, 10 October 2023, 138621
The location-pricing problem aims to solve pricing and facility location problems at the same time. While the demand of customers is known in the classical facility location problem, it is a function of price in the location-pricing problem. Moreover, some other factors, such as production, transportation and inventory costs, and competition, can affect the final price of products, making the location-pricing problem more complicated. Considering the necessity of incorporating environmental aspects into supply chain design and the importance of considering the behavioral characteristics of decision-makers, this study addresses the location-pricing problem based on these two significant perspectives. In this paper, there is a lead company responsible for locating and planning a set of manufacturers in the first echelon. On the other hand, the focal manager controls the total emissions and sets the wholesale price. In the second echelon, there are two retailers that base their pricing strategies on social preferences in order to gain a larger market share. The competition between the retailers determines the demands of the customers. The modeling approach is based on the Stackelberg-behavioral Nash game and is formulated as a bi-level mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The problem is solved using a combination of an analytical solution method and the utilization of a commercial optimization solver. The proposed model is assessed using a real case study in the energy sector. The results indicate that deviating from purely selfish behavior in the pursuit of profit can lead to beneficial outcomes. Generally speaking, price competition between status-seeking retailers results in lower prices for the leader and followers compared to the standard game theory approach. This leads to an increase in average demand in the market, which results in increased profit for members and consequently improves the performance of the whole system. Also, it is worth mentioning that the status-seeking behavior of retailers results in a decrease in retail prices, which improves social welfare.
5. Cause-specific mortality and burden attributable to temperature variability in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 896, 20 October 2023, 165267
Few large-scale, nationwide studies have assessed cause-specific mortality risks and burdens associated with temperature variability (TV).
To estimate associations between TV and cause-specific mortality and quantify the mortality burden in China.
Data on daily total and cause-specific mortality in 272 Chinese cities between 2013 and 2015 were recorded. TVs were computed as the standard deviations of daily minimum and maximum temperatures over a duration of 2 to 7 days. The time-series quasi-Poisson regression model with adjustment of the cumulative effects of daily mean temperature over the same duration was applied to evaluate the city-specific associations of TV and mortality. Then, we pooled the effect estimates using a random-effects meta-analysis and calculated the mortality burdens.
Overall, TV showed significant and positive associations with total and cause-specific mortality. The TV-mortality associations were generally stronger when using longer durations. A 1 °C increase in TV at 0–7 days (TV0–7) was associated with a 0.79 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.55 %, 0.96 %] increase in total mortality. Mortality fractions attributable to TV0–7 were 4.37 % for total causes, 4.75 % for overall cardiovascular disease, 4.37 % for coronary heart disease, 5.05 % for stroke, 8.28 % for ischaemic stroke, 1.08 % for haemorrhagic stroke, 6.93 % for respiratory disease, and 6.81 % for COPD, respectively. The mortality risk and burden were generally higher in the temperate monsoon zone, females, and elders.
This nationwide study indicated that TV was an independent risk factor of mortality, and could result in significant burden for main cardiorespiratory diseases.
6. Assessing the effectiveness of nature-based solutions-strengthened urban planning mechanisms in forming flood-resilient cities
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 344, 15 October 2023, 118260
Cities have experienced rapid urbanization-induced harsh climatic events, especially flooding, inevitably resulting in negative and irreversible consequences for urban resilience and endangering residents’ lives. Numerous studies have analyzed the effects of anthropogenic practices (land use changes and urbanization) on flood forecasting. However, non-structural mitigation’s effectiveness, like Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), has yet to receive adequate attention, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, which have become increasingly significant and indispensable for operationalizing cities efficiently. Therefore, our study investigated the predictive influence of incorporating one of the most common NBS strategies called low-impact development tools (LID) (such as rain gardens, bio-retention cells, green roofs, infiltration trenches, permeable pavement, and vegetative swale) during the urban planning of Alexandria, Egypt, which experiences the harshest rainfall annually and includes various urban patterns. City characteristics-dependent 14 LID scenarios were simulated with recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 100 years using the LID Treatment Train Tool (LID TTT), depending on calibrated data from 2015 to 2020, by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index and deterministic coefficient, and root-mean-square error with values of 0.97, 0.91, and 0.31, respectively. Our findings confirmed the significant effectiveness of combined LID tools on total flood runoff volume reduction by 73.7%, revealing that different urban patterns can be used in flood-prone cities, provided LID tools are considered in city planning besides grey infrastructure to achieve optimal mitigation. These results, which combined multiple disciplines and were not explicitly mentioned in similar studies in developing countries, may assist municipalities’ policymakers in planning flood-resistant, sustainable cities.
7. Coupling analysis and driving factors between carbon emission intensity and high-quality economic development: Evidence from the Yellow River Basin, China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 423, 15 October 2023, 138831
This study aims to explore the complex dynamic relationship between carbon emission intensity (CEI) and high-quality economic development (HQED) in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), with the goal of fostering ecological protection and high-quality development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on the comprehensive development level, evolutionary trends, and driving factors of these two systems in the YRB. To address this, the study uses multiple methodologies, including nighttime light data, the entropy-topsis method, the coupling coordination degree model (CCDM), exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), and the geodetector model, to examine the coupling coordination relationship and driving factors between CEI and HQED across sixty cities in the YRB from 2010 to 2019. The results reveal a decreasing trend in CEI and a “U”-shaped development trend for HQED, characterized by low coordination and significant spatial imbalance. Moreover, per capita GDP, population density, urbanization level, industrial structure, and energy intensity are found to have significant driving effects on the CCD. Based on the results, the study suggests policies to boost the CCD between CEI and HQED. These involve promoting green transitions, endorsing spatially tailored development strategies, and implementing interventions on major CCD drivers for balanced growth. It also proposes refining regional governance and establishing an innovation fund for green technologies, particularly beneficial for underdeveloped regions. These policy implications could guide economic development and emission reduction strategies in ecologically fragile and economically underdeveloped regions.
8. Review of EU product energy efficiency policies: What have we achieved in 40 years?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138442
The improvement of energy efficiency of products is a key pillar of climate and energy strategy in the European Union (EU). The first EU product policies were adopted in the late 1970s, and they have evolved to become a coherent set of implementing measures under framework directives that harmonise and refine the regulatory process. After years of weak implementation, considerable progress in terms of scale and ambition has been achieved in the last decade. In 2020, product mandatory measures covered 50% of the EU total final energy consumption, leading to 46 Mtoe energy savings. This paper describes the available policy instruments to promote energy efficiency and remove the market barriers hindering the penetration of the best performing technologies. It offers a review of the progress made over these last 40 years of EU product policies, describing the Energy Labelling, the Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS), the Ecodesign Directive and the voluntary agreements (EU Ecolabel and Green Public Procurement). Moreover, it highlights the remaining challenges and provides policy recommendations to further exploit the EU potential to save energy from products.
9. Spatial dynamics and influencing factors of carbon rebound effect in tourism transport: Evidence from the Yangtze-river delta urban agglomeration
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 344, 15 October 2023, 118431
Economic efficiency gains in tourism are considered a crucial approach to reducing carbon emissions in the tourism sector, especially in tourism transport. However, as a significant source of carbon emissions from tourism activities, the total carbon emissions from tourism transport have not decreased proportionally to the reduction in the intensity, despite China’s overall improvement in the tourism economic efficiency. This phenomenon is commonly known as the “rebound effect”, which means that although technological progress can achieve emission reductions by efficiency improvement, but it can also indirectly stimulate socio-economic growth and creates new energy demands, results in expected emission reductions being offset by the additional economic growth effect. Based on the multi-source data structure, this paper takes Yangtze-river delta urban agglomeration as an example, quantitatively evaluated the carbon rebound effect of tourism transport through the rebound effect measurement model; simulated the spatiotemporal dynamics evolution pattern of the carbon rebound effect in tourism transport through the spatial kernel density; extracted and identified the dominant factors of carbon rebound effect in tourism transport by the geographic detector. The conclusions summarized as follow: (1) The overall carbon emissions from tourism transport in the agglomeration primarily exhibit a weak rebound effect. (2) The carbon rebound effect is significantly influenced by spatiotemporal factors, which impact its development trend and interaction relations. (3) The level of tourism consumption exerts the greatest influence on the carbon rebound effect of tourism transport, while environmental regulation intensity is commonly employed as a measure to address the rebound effect. This paper aims to enhance the diversity of research on carbon emissions in tourism transport while addressing the existing limitations in spatial-temporal extension. The objective is to restrain the spread of the carbon rebound effect at the regional level, thereby providing a novel decision-making reference for the sustainable development of regional tourism.
10. Unveiling the comprehensive resources and environmental efficiency and its influencing factors: Within and across the five urban agglomerations in Northwest China
Ecological Indicators, Volume 154, October 2023, 110466
Promoting the comprehensive resources and environmental efficiency (CREE) in urban agglomerations (UAs) is of great practical significance for China’s sustainable development. However, CREE in UAs of underdeveloped regions has not received enough attention. Under this background, we constructed a systematic and coherent framework to study CREE and took the five UAs of Northwest China as a case. The super epsilon-based measure (EBM) model was performed to quantify CREE during 2000–2017. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns in detail. Through the Super-EBM and GTWR (geographically and temporally weighted regression) model, the endogenous components and exogenous determinants of CREE were examined. The results indicated that the CREE in the five UAs of Northwest China underwent a slight decrease as a whole, and showed an intensified spatial divergence. It exhibited an obvious discontinuity and path bifurcation while being negatively correlated with spatial imbalance across the UAs. The CREE of different UAs showed various spatial distribution characteristics. Regarding the endogenous mechanism, the UAs had certain commonalities and characteristics. The exogenous mechanism manifested certain spatial heterogeneity across UAs while it was generally consistent within each single UA. These results could provide insightful recommendations for the resources and environmental governance in the study area and other similar regions.
11. Local governments’ responses to the environmental target responsibility system: Evidence from Chinese prefectures
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138527
Since the late 1990s, the Chinese government has made significant, efforts to establish a robust regulatory and institutional framework for environmental management. Environmental legislation has been strengthened, accompanied by the establishment of an extensive network of environmental agencies(Li and Michalak, 2008). However, despite the comprehensive framework, effective enforcement of environmental regulations has not been achieved as it was intended. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in 2005 were approximately 28% higher than those in 2000, far exceeding the central government’s target of a 10% reduction set in the 10th (2000–2005) national Five-year Plan(FYP)
12. Hospital and urban wastewaters shape the matrix and active resistome of environmental biofilms
Water Research, Volume 244, 1 October 2023, 120408
Understanding the dynamics of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) transfer and dissemination in natural environments remains challenging. Biofilms play a crucial role in bacterial survival and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) dissemination in natural environments, particularly in aquatic systems. This study focused on hospital and urban wastewater (WW) biofilms to investigate the potential for ARG dissemination through mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The analysis included assessing the biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), microbiota composition as well as metatranscriptomic profiling of the resistome and mobilome. We produced both in vitro and in situ biofilms and performed phenotypic and genomic analyses. In the in vitro setup, untreated urban and hospital WW was used to establish biofilm reactors, with ciprofloxacin added as a selective agent at minimal selective concentration. In the in situ setup, biofilms were developed directly in hospital and urban WW pipes.
We first showed that a) the composition of EPS differed depending on the growth environment (in situ and in vitro) and the sampling origin (hospital vs urban WW) and that b) ciprofloxacin impacted the composition of the EPS. The metatranscriptomic approach showed that a) expression of several ARGs and MGEs increased upon adding ciprofloxacin for biofilms from hospital WW only and b) that the abundance and type of plasmids that carried individual or multiple ARGs varied depending on the WW origins of the biofilms. When the same plasmids were present in both, urban and hospital WW biofilms, they carried different ARGs. We showed that hospital and urban wastewaters shaped the structure and active resistome of environmental biofilms, and we confirmed that hospital WW is an important hot spot for the dissemination and selection of antimicrobial resistance. Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of WW biofilms as crucial hotspots for ARG transfer. Hospital WW biofilms exhibited distinct characteristics, including higher eDNA abundance and expression levels of ARGs and MGEs, highlighting their role in antimicrobial resistance dissemination. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding the structural, ecological, functional, and genetic organization of biofilms in anthropized environments and their contribution to antibiotic resistance dynamics.
13. How to develop site-specific waterlogging mitigation strategies? Understanding the spatial heterogeneous driving forces of urban waterlogging
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 422, 10 October 2023, 138595
Urban waterlogging seriously threatens urban sustainable development and human life. The effects of various landscape elements on urban waterlogging have been extensively documented. However, less attention is deserved to the spatial heterogeneity effects of urban landscape elements on urban waterlogging. The spatial pattern of dominant driving forces and how the interactive effects of landscape elements affect urban waterlogging with different environmental configurations have not been well examined. These shortcomings have hindered the development of target-specific urban waterlogging mitigation strategies. To shed some light on this topic, an innovative method that integrated the boruta algorithm, cubist regression tree, and geographical detector model is presented to investigate the spatial heterogeneous mechanisms of urban waterlogging and map the waterlogging dominant driving forces with different local conditions. The results show that the boruta algorithm proposed in this study introduces shadow variables as a benchmark, thus enabling an unbiased and stable selection of representative waterlogging driving factors based on local conditions. By comparing with two other commonly used regression methods (global regression model, spatial lag model), the cubist regression tree divides the urban waterlogging space into multiple homogeneous subgroups to quantify the spatial non-stationarity relationship and spatially explicit the local driving forces in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, with the adjusted R2 of 0.79 and 0.88. The geographical detector model denotes that waterlogging magnitude within different subgroups is affected by different dominant factors. Even for the same dominant factor, its contribution to waterlogging varies considerably in different subgroups. The independent contribution of the dominant factor in Guangzhou was 23.28%–57.82%, while in Shenzhen it ranged from 25.95% to 53.59%. In addition to the dominant factor of each subgroup, it is noteworthy that in some subgroups the combined effect of different representative factors on waterlogging is significantly stronger than the contribution of their dominant factors. In view of this, urban planners and local authorities need to comprehensively consider the interaction effect between representative factors, which develop urban waterlogging mitigation strategies that integrate multiple factors. The results from this study extend our scientific understanding of the site-specific mechanism of urban waterlogging, which facilitates the implementation of more targeted and effective mitigation strategies, rather than a “one-size-fits-all” policy.
14. Tourism development, environmental regulations, and natural resource management: Evidence from G20 countries
Resources Policy, Volume 86, Part A, October 2023, 104224
The rapid development in the tourism sector across the globe has posed significant challenges for the conservation and management of natural resources, necessitating the implementation of effective environmental regulations. In this perspective, to add empirical evidence in the academic literature, this study aims to investigate the role of tourism development and environmental regulations in the management of natural resources in the G20 countries. To serve the objective, this paper takes the data of G20 countries over the period of 1995–2020 and employ FGLS and PCSE econometric techniques for empirical estimations. The results have shown that tourism development, environmental regulations, environmental protection technologies, and government regulatory quality interventions have a positive impact on natural resources management. However, natural resource depletion has a negative impact on the protection of natural resources. The results were significant when both a common AR(1) model and a panel-specific AR(1) model were used. Although the slope coefficients vary slightly, the estimates are comparable using the Prais-Winsten and Driscoll-Kraay standard error regressions. The findings of the study hold promising insights for policy formation in G20 countries for developing environmental and tourism policies to manage the natural resources for the future generations.
15. Examining challenges and solutions for environmental and natural resource management with a focus on mineral resources
Resources Policy, Volume 86, Part A, October 2023, 104085
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a significant negative influence on the environment and natural resources, especially in developing countries that already face environmental issues. This research examines the effects of the pandemic on environmental degradation and natural resource depletion in developing countries. In this study, the fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment (WASPAS) methods are used to examine the challenges and solutions for environmental and natural resource management with a special attention on mineral resources policy. In this regard, the various critical challenges and solutions are proposed for the sustainable development of mineral resources. According to the results of the fuzzy AHP approach, the depletion of natural resources, energy use and emissions, and deforestation and biodiversity loss are of paramount relevance challenges. While, the fuzzy WASPAS results show that sustainable development planning, research innovation, and conservation and protection of natural resources are key solutions in addressing environmental and natural resource depletion after the Covid-19 crisis in developing countries. The findings have enriched our understanding regarding how the Covid-19 outbreak has affected the environment and natural resources in developing countries. The study highlights the significance of considering mineral resources in the overall assessment and the need for sustainable resource management practices throughout the post-pandemic recovery stage.
16. A novel artificial neural network methodology to produce high-resolution bioclimatic maps using Earth Observation data: A case study for Cyprus
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 893, 1 October 2023, 164734
The aim of this research is to propose a novel methodology that exploits Earth Observation (EO) data to accurately produce high-resolution bioclimatic maps at large spatiotemporal scales. This method directly links EO products (i.e., land surface temperature – LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index – NDVI) to air temperature (Tair) and such thermal indices as the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) to produce large-scale high-quality bioclimatic maps at a spatial resolution of 100 m. The proposed methodology is based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and the bioclimatic maps are developed with the use of Geographical Information Systems. High-resolution LST maps are produced from the spatial downscaling of EO images and the application of the methodology in the case of the island of Cyprus highlights the ability of EO parameters to estimate accurately Tair as well as the above mentioned thermal indices. The results are validated for different conditions and the overall Mean Absolute Error for each case ranges from 1.9 °C for Tair to 2.8 °C for PET and UTCI. The trained ANNs could be used in near real-time for estimating the spatial distribution of outdoor thermal conditions and for assessing the relationship between human health and the outdoor thermal environment. On the basis of the developed bioclimatic maps, high-risk areas were identified. Furthermore, the study examines the relationship between land cover and Tair, UTCI, and PET, and the results provide evidence of the suitability of the method to monitor the dynamics of the urban environment and the effectiveness of urban nature-based solutions. Studies on bioclimate analysis monitor thermal environment, raise awareness and enhance the capacity of national public health systems to respond to thermally-induced health risks.
URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Impact assessment of vehicle electrification pathways on emissions of CO2 and air pollution in Xi’an, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 893, 1 October 2023, 164856
To assess the environmental impact of promoting the use of electric vehicles in road traffic on emissions of CO2 and air pollution in Xi’an, China, both the proportion of electric vehicles and the power generation mix should be considered. Here, vehicle ownership in 2021 served as the baseline scenario, and the vehicle development trend through 2035 was projected. Using emission factor models for fuel vehicles and the electricity generation required for running electric vehicles, this study estimated the related pollutants’ emission inventories at 81 corresponding scenarios, in which differing vehicle electrification paths were coupled with power generation mix. Further, the degree to which different vehicle electrification paths impacted the CO2 and air pollutant emissions was also evaluated. The results show that, to achieve the goal of peak carbon emission in the road transport sector in Xi’an by 2030, the penetration rate of electric vehicles must reach at least 40 % in 2035, and the thermal power generation rate should satisfy the necessary coupling conditions. Although reducing the thermal power generation rate could mitigate the environmental problems, we find that electric vehicle development in Xi’an during 2021–2035 would still exacerbate SO2 emissions despite reducing the thermal power generation rate to 10 %. Finally, to avoid exacerbating the adverse effects on public health from vehicle-related pollutants, the penetration rate of electric vehicles should be at least 40 % in 2035, at which time for the 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, and 70 % scenarios, the corresponding thermal power generation rate should not exceed 10 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 60 %. This study systematically analyzed plausible development paths of electric vehicles from the perspectives of peak carbon emissions, air pollution control, and human health, whose findings can serve as a timely and valuable reference for reducing pollution and carbon in the field of road transport.
2. Intertwined impacts of urbanization and land cover change on urban climate and agriculture in Aurangabad city (MS), India using google earth engine platform
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 422, 10 October 2023, 138541
Devastation possibility of disenfranchising poor people of emerging countries like India is due to urban climate change. Hence, an urgent and efficient urban planning strategy shall be adopted for the creation/making of sustainable and amicable cities. This research is focused on the interlinked impacts of urbanization and land cover change on urban climate for Aurangabad city, India using Google Earth Engine. Aurangabad city areas are occupied by industrial areas and historical places and thus the city can be converted into a metropolitan city in the future through well planning. Important indicators such as land cover, change detection, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) are used for the research assessment. Machine learning (ML) model (i.e., random forest (RF)) is developed using google earth engine (GEE) platform and satellite datasets for Land use and land cover (LULC) classification. GEE platform is used for the computation of LST and NDVI (2015–2020) based on Landsat-8 satellite. The vegetation “agriculture land” is observed to be covered more than half of the total area under study (113.48 km2) followed by Wasteland (61.70 km2), Built-up land (34.68 km2), and Water body (3.44 km2). Significantly, over for the years of 2015 and 2020, an increment in the water body area noticed by 11.24 km2 followed by Wasteland (66.30 km2) and urban area (36.70 km2). Whereas the vegetation covered is decreased during period of 2020 with area ratio of 98.95 km2. Study of vegetation’s index for the years of 2015 and 2020 revealed NDVI values are decreased. Interlinked land cover vegetation area and NDVI values is showed vegetation land decreased in the city. The LST is identified in the urban area about 2 °C in rising in comparison to the year of 2015. The major highlight of this research that LST, NDVI and land cover classes are dramatically changed over the last five years due to built-up land expansion, pollution increase, vegetation land decrease and pollution.
3. Geolocated social media data for measuring park visitation in Shenzhen, China
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 88, October 2023, 128069
Understanding park visitation patterns and factors that correlate with park use is conducive to urban green space management and planning. Although a growing number of studies have indicated geolocated social media can be used as a proxy for recreational use analysis, most of them relied on a single or similar social media platform(s). In this study, we used geolocated social media data among four popular platforms in China to estimate park visitation and explore the influence of 13 potential factors on park usage in Shenzhen by the geographical detector model. A park visitation index was introduced to estimate park usage, and it indicated large parks, such as natural and city parks, have a higher park visitation index than community parks in Shenzhen. In contrast to the check-in data, the real-time user data has a higher potential to describe park visitation citywide. Our findings demonstrate park size, sports and recreation amenities, the length of trails, and the nearby building density of a given park are likely to influence park visitation. The enhanced interactive relationship of 13 potential determinants of park usage can provide implications for urban park management and planning.
4. Impact and analysis of urban water system connectivity project on regional water environment based on Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 423, 15 October 2023, 138840
SWMM stands as a dynamic rainfall-runoff urban hydrological model, crafted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It adeptly replicates urban rainfall production and ground runoff, and the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) theory artfully reflects human-environment interactions. Urban Water System Connectivity (UWSC) fortifies connections among regional rivers, transforming them into an intricate, dense network. To study the improvement of the regional water environment by the UWSC project, this study takes the UWSC project in Runan County, Zhumadian, China as the research object, constructs a hydrodynamic and water quality model based on SWMM, and simulates it under different rainfall situations. At the same time, the ecological service value theory and PSR theory are used to establish an ecological effect index system to analyze the ecological effect before and after the UWSC project. This paper evaluates the urban water system connectivity project from three aspects: hydrodynamic, water quality, and ecological effects. Results underscore that the post-UWSC era witnesses decreased river flood flows in varied design rainfalls, accompanied by delayed flood peaks. Under P = 10a and P = 20a rainfalls, peak flow reductions of 6.6% and 4.96% respectively, manifest with peak time lags of 0.17h. Flow rate adjustments align with flow behavior, exhibiting decreased peak flow rates accompanied by temporal lags. Initial river flow increases by about 30%, amplifying river water body exchange capacity. Following the UWSC implementation, the study area’s five primary rivers display TSS reductions ranging from 46% to 86.94%, COD from 36.98% to 92.43%, TN from 45.9% to 92.96%, TP from 35.71% to 84.78%, and NH3–N from 38.52% to 92.19%. Simulated point source pollution, under comparable initial conditions, indicates pollutant decay rates escalating from 3.2%–20%–35.71%–92.43%. Ecological impact ascends from 6.33 × 108 RMB to 9.65 × 108 RMB, reflecting a 52.5% escalation. The UWSC initiative enriches urban river flood resilience and water quality, emblematic of urban water ecological civilization progress.
5. DPSR-based study and assessment of the influence pathways of Shanghai urban development level on river methane emission potential during 2011–2020
Ecological Indicators, Volume 154, October 2023, 110709
Numerous studies have shown that urban rivers are becoming a source of methane emissions, which poses a challenge to developing a “net zero carbon city.” Most studies at this stage focus on the influence of single urban elements on river methane emissions, such as land use, water facilities, etc. It is necessary to consider the impact of urban development on river methane emissions in an integrated manner. This study aggregated relevant data sets for seven municipal districts in Shanghai during 2011–2020, collected through literature and statistical yearbooks. We constructed an “urban river methane emission” system based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Response model and used partial least squares-path modeling to verify the rationality of the system’s influence pathways. The results showed (goodness-of-fitness = 0.4446) that driver (population density, urbanization rate), pressure (annual water supply, total yearly household waste), and state (deteriorating water quality environment) all increased the methane emission potential of urban rivers (total effect = 0.1917; 0.3932; 0.1394). Response (sewage treatment rate, environmental investment) would mitigate river methane emissions (total effect = -0.2230). An “urban river methane emission potential” assessment model was then developed. Partial least squares-path modeling and generalized linear mixed model were used to calculate the “urban river methane emission potential” index in seven municipal districts of Shanghai over ten years, respectively. And the results of the two methods were similar. The results showed that (e.g., partial least squares-path modeling method) Pudong District and Putuo District maintained a high methane emission potential of urban rivers (the average index was 46.15%, and 25.94%, respectively) during this decade. The emission potential of Qingpu District and Jinshan District were significantly lower during this decade (p < 0.05, the average index was −1.28% and 0.77%, respectively). We believed that higher human activity intensities and economic levels before or in the lead-up to a transition to a “net zero carbon city” would mean a higher urban river methane emission risk. The development and quantification of the “urban river methane emission potential” assessment model would provide new assessment perspectives and methods for policymakers or urban planners to control urban greenhouse gas emissions and promote the “net zero carbon city” process. Meanwhile, the “urban river methane emission” system pointed out the carbon emission risk at the pollution end. It would provide a new idea to improve products’ full-lifecycle carbon footprint accounting.
6. Deciphering the water quality impacts of COVID-19 human mobility shifts in estuaries surrounding New York City
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 896, 20 October 2023, 164953
The COVID-19 pandemic altered human mobility, particularly in large metropolitan areas. In New York City (NYC), stay-at-home orders and social distancing led to significant decreases in commuting, tourism, and a surge of outward migration. Such changes could result in decreased anthropogenic pressure on local environments. Several studies have linked COVID-19 shutdowns with improvements in water quality. However, the bulk of these studies primarily focused on short-term impacts during shutdown periods, without assessing longer-term impacts as restrictions eased. Here, we examine both concurrent lockdown and societal reopening impacts on water quality, using pre-pandemic baseline conditions, in two highly urbanized estuaries surrounding NYC, the New-York Harbor estuary and Long Island Sound (LIS). We compiled datasets from 2017 to 2021 of mass-transit ridership, work-from-home trends, and municipal wastewater effluent to assess changes in human mobility and anthropogenic pressure during multiple waves of the pandemic in 2020 and 2021. These were linked to changes in water quality assessed using high spatiotemporal ocean color remote sensing, which provides near-daily observations across the estuary study regions. To distinguish anthropogenic impacts from natural environmental variability, we examined meteorological/hydrological conditions, primarily precipitation and wind. Our results show that nitrogen loading into the New York Harbor declined significantly in the spring of 2020 and remained below pre-pandemic values through 2021. In contrast, nitrogen loading into LIS remained closer to the pre-pandemic average. In response, water clarity in New-York Harbor significantly improved, with less of a change in LIS. We further show that changes in nitrogen loading had higher impact on water quality than meteorological conditions. Our study demonstrates the value of remote sensing observations in assessing water quality changes when field-based monitoring is hindered and highlights the complex nature of urban estuaries and their heterogeneous response to changes in extreme events and human behavior.
7. Assessing changes in urban vegetation using Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for epidemiological studies
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 88, October 2023, 128080
Urban vegetation is an important component of healthy, livable cities and has been linked to several benefits, including improved human health outcomes, natural system regulation, and habitat provision. Understanding and documenting changes to urban vegetation is essential for planning for sustainable cities. This study focuses on identifying where and when urban vegetation changed in Metro Vancouver between 2005 and 2019 using the dynamic change approach to aid longitudinal epidemiological studies in determining accurate exposure estimates. Vegetation change was detected for three time periods: 2005–2009, 2010–2014, and 2015–2019 using normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholds. A cluster analysis of vegetation change was then conducted to identify areas of change. The results show that Metro Vancouver has gained vegetation over this 15-year time period, particularly along the eastern part of the metropolitan area and along the Fraser River. Vegetation loss occurred mostly in areas under high housing demand, such as along the northern parts of the study area (e.g., the North Shore). The method demonstrated in this study provides a simple, cost-effective way of assessing vegetation change, which is an important step for understanding the relationships between urban development and vegetation and potentially related changes in human health.
8. Urban sustainability assessment at the neighborhood scale: Integrating spatial modellings and multi-criteria decision making approaches
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 97, October 2023, 104725
Urban sustainability is a highly complex concept that requires integrative assessment frameworks to determine the measures that should be adopted to achieve a sustainable city. The present study aimed to conduct a spatially-based sustainability assessment at the neighborhood scale in Isfahan Metropolitan, a rapidly urbanizing region in the center of Iran, using an integrated framework of spatial modeling and multi-criteria decision-making analysis (MCDA). As a first step, the spatial distribution of a set of indicators was provided in three distinct categories, ecosystem service, environmental hazard, and urban structure using various spatial modeling approaches. After standardizing the indicators and assigning appropriate weights to them, different multi-criteria decision analysis models were used to aggregate the indicator layers. The sustainability layers based on ecosystem services, environmental hazards, and urban structure were integrated using MCDA models. The results indicated that less than 3% of the total neighborhood area were categorized as almost sustainable, while 36.1% and 59.4% were respectively scored as poor and moderate sustainable area. None of the neighborhoods was categorized in the sustainably good class, whereas 1.73% of the area was unsustainable. Moreover, the urban structure-based aspect was found to be the most sustainable, while the urban environmental hazards dimension exhibited the lowest sustainability, with 71.98% falling into the poor and unsustainable category. The spatial investigation showed that the central parts of the city were more sustainable than the urban periphery. In conclusion, a spatially-based sustainable assessment of Isfahan City at the neighborhood level can provide urban planners with valuable insights to undertake operational actions and achieve sustainable development goals.
9. Role of garbage classification in air pollution improvement of a municipal solid waste disposal base
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 423, 15 October 2023, 138737
Assessing the impact of garbage classification on air pollution in rapidly developing economic regions is particularly necessary in light of the current policy trends. We evaluated the resulting changes in air pollution levels before and after garbage classification based on a three-year field observation using high-resolution online instruments in a municipal solid waste comprehensive disposal base. A targeted scheme is proposed to analyze the variation characteristics of major sources in a complex multi-source environment (Environments with multiple sources of pollution). We found that the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air decreased by 48% and 43% respectively after garbage classification, and their spike frequency was controlled at approximately 0.01. The average H2S and VOC concentrations were generally low during the daytime, but relatively high during the nighttime because of meteorology and photochemistry. The ozone formation potential of the base decreased by 56%. Alternatively, emissions from transportation and combustion sources increased, while landfill pollution decreased owing to changes in the method of waste disposal. This finding suggests that garbage classification is an effective means of improving the air quality. This new scheme has a good potential in actual research scenarios.
10. Unexpected low CO2 emission from highly disturbed urban inland waters
Environmental Research, Volume 235, 15 October 2023, 116689
Constituents and functionality of urban inland waters are significantly perturbed by municipal sewage inputs and tailwater discharge from wastewater treatment plants. However, large knowledge gaps persist in understanding greenhouse gas dynamics in urban inland waters due to a lack of in situ measurements. Herein, via a 3-year field campaign (2018–2020), we report river and lake CO2 emission and related aquatic factors regulating the emission in the municipality of Beijing. Mean pCO2 (546 ± 481 μatm) in the two urban lakes was lower than global non-tropical freshwater lakes and CO2 flux in 47% of the lake observations was negative. Though average pCO2 in urban rivers (3124 ± 3846 μatm) was among the higher range of global rivers (1300–4300 μatm), average CO2 flux was much lower than the global river average (99.7 ± 147.5 versus 358.4 mmol m−2 d−1). The high pCO2 cannot release to the atmosphere due to the low gas exchange rate in urban rivers (average k600 of 1.3 ± 1.3 m d−1), resulting in low CO2 flux in urban rivers. Additionally, eutrophication promotes photosynthetic uptake and aquatic organic substrate production, leading to no clear relationships observed between pCO2 and phytoplankton photosynthesis or dissolved organic carbon. In consistence with the findings, CO2 emission accounted for only 32% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission equivalence (CO2, CH4 and N2O) in Beijing waters, in contrast to a major role of anthropogenic CO2 to anthropogenic GHG in the atmosphere in terms of radiative forcing (66%). These results pointed to unique GHG emission profiles and the need for a special account of urban inland waters in terms of aquatic GHG emissions.
11. Long-term SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in wastewater and estimation of COVID-19 cases: An application of wastewater-based epidemiology
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 896, 20 October 2023, 165270
The role of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), a powerful tool to complement clinical surveillance, has increased as many grassroots-level facilities, such as municipalities and cities, are actively involved in wastewater monitoring, and the clinical testing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is downscaled widely. This study aimed to conduct long-term wastewater surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, using one-step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay and estimate COVID-19 cases using a cubic regression model that is simple to implement. Influent wastewater samples (n = 132) from a wastewater treatment plant were collected normally once weekly between September 2020 and January 2022 and twice weekly between February and August 2022. Viruses in wastewater samples (40 mL) were concentrated by the polyethylene glycol precipitation method, followed by RNA extraction and RT-qPCR. The K-6-fold cross-validation method was used to select the appropriate data type (SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration and COVID-19 cases) suitable for the final model run. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was successfully detected in 67 % (88 of 132) of the samples tested during the whole surveillance period, 37 % (24 of 65) and 96 % (64 of 67) of the samples collected before and during 2022, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 3.5 to 6.3 log10 copies/L. This study applied a nonnormalized SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration and nonstandardized data for running the final 14-day (1 to 14 days) offset models to estimate weekly average COVID-19 cases. Comparing the parameters used for a model evaluation, the best model showed that COVID-19 cases lagged 3 days behind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration in wastewater samples during the Omicron variant phase (year 2022). Finally, 3- and 7-day offset models successfully predicted the trend of COVID-19 cases from September 2022 until February 2023, indicating the applicability of WBE as an early warning tool.
12. Prevalence of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the urban wastewater treatment systems of Dehradun, India: Daunting presence of Estrone
Environmental Research, Volume 235, 15 October 2023, 116673
We quantified the occurrences and seasonal variations of the target endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at four (two major municipals, and two academic institutions) WWTPs in Dehradun city, Uttarakhand, India. The results showed estrone in higher concentrations at μgL−1 levels in influent among the WWTPs, compared to triclosan (TCS) at ngL−1 levels. An astounding concentration of 123.95 μgL−1 was recorded for the estrone in the influent, which is to date the highest ever recorded, globally. Statistical data treatment was performed to test the distribution of the data (Shapiro-Wilk, Anderson-Darling, Lilliefors, and Jarque-Bera tests), and the significant difference between the mean of the wastewater sample population (ANOVA: F statistics, p values, Mann-Whitney test, Tukey’s and Dunn’s post hoc analysis). Statistical data treatment indicated EDCs concentration with a bi-modal distribution. The Shapiro-Wilk, Anderson-Darling, Lilliefors, and Jarque-Bera tests elucidate a non-normal distribution for the EDCs sample data. A statistically significant difference (F = 8.46; p < 0.0001) in the seasonal data for the abundance of the target EDCs at the WWTPs have been observed. Highest and significantly different mean EDCs concentrations were recorded during the monsoon, compared to the spring (p = 0.025) and summer (p = 0.0004) seasons in the influent waters. The mean influent concentrations of TCS and estrone in monsoon were 66.45 ngL−1 and 78.02 μgL−1, respectively. Maximum removals were recorded for TCS, while maximum negative removal of ∼293% was observed for estrone in the WWTPs. Particularly, the high levels of estrone in the wastewater pose a significant threat as estrone presence could be led to feminization, dysregulation of reproduction in organisms, and carcinogenesis processes in the environment. This study critically highlights the limitation of the WWTPs in the treatment, degradation, and assimilation of EDCs leading to their hyperaccumulation at WWTP effluents, thereby posing a substantial threat to nearby aquatic ecosystems, human health, and the ecological balance of the region.
13. Urban forests – Different ownership translates to greater diversity of trees
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 88, October 2023, 128084
Urban forests are recognized for their multiple benefits to society, and increasingly so with climate change. However, they too are threatened by increased heat, pollution, and higher risks of pest outbreaks. Increasing the diversity of tree species in urban forests is crucial for enhancing their resilience by reducing the risk of mass tree losses. Yet, we lack the most important ingredient to act: knowledge. Traditionally, urban tree inventories only include trees on public land. This study describes the first urban forest research plot established in Montreal, Canada, encompassing 1567 trees on public and private (residential and institutional) lands from 84 species and 43 genera. Our paper significantly contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing empirical data that enhances our understanding and provides a clearer picture of urban forests, particularly concerning total tree diversity, across public and private lands. We found that tree abundance and diversity differed depending on land ownership: the public urban forest included more trees and was slightly more diverse than the private urban forest. Acer emerged as the most abundant genus, and small trees dominated all ownership categories. Importantly, the species composition of trees in public and private spaces differed, increasing the overall diversity. Of particular interest was the presence of three species on private property that were not recorded in the larger public tree inventory. Developing inventory practices that include private trees can provide insight to strategically enhance tree diversity where needed and maximize the benefits that diverse urban forests provide.
14. Recyclable waste in Brazilian municipalities: A spatial-temporal analysis before and after the national policy on solid waste
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138503
In 2010, the Brazilian authorities approved the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) with the aim of promoting the recycling and reuse of solid waste. However, assessing the distribution and progress of recyclable material recovery following the implementation of this key government policy remains a challenging task. Therefore, this study employs a spatial-temporal analysis to investigate the impact of the NPSW on the recovery of recyclable waste in Brazil. We employed spatial statistical techniques such as Getis-Ord Gi* and Global Moran’s I. The results revealed significant and heterogeneous clustering of recycled materials among municipalities, both before and after the implementation of the NPSW. The analysis demonstrated that recycled waste tended to cluster in more developed and urbanized areas, while a considerable number of cold spots were observed in less developed regions or densely populated areas, indicating low recycling rates. These findings raise environmental concerns for policymakers and emphasize the need for interventions to enhance recycling efforts. The study highlights the urgency of improving municipal solid waste management and raising awareness among local communities about the economic and environmental benefits of recycling, particularly in areas characterized by unsanitary living conditions, poverty, and low-income disparities. Therefore, it is recommended to tailor the legal framework to local realities, considering the vast and socioeconomically diverse landscape of Brazil.
15. Transformation of organic carbon through medium pressure (polychromatic) UV disinfection of wastewater effluent during wet weather events
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 896, 20 October 2023, 165149
An observed decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations following wastewater disinfection with medium pressure (MP, polychromatic) ultraviolet (UV) irradiation during wet weather flows is investigated. When antecedent rainfall in the previous 7-days was >2 in (5 cm), TOC and DOC concentrations decreased dramatically following MP-UV disinfection. Organic carbon surrogate measurements of biological oxygen demand (BOD), TOC, DOC, turbidity, UVA – 254 nm, SUVA (specific UVA), scanning UV–Visible spectra (200–600 nm), fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra, and light scattering data are presented for wastewater resource recovery facility (WRRF) influent, secondary effluent (pre-UV-disinfection), and MP-UV-disinfected (final effluent) samples. TOC and DOC in wastewater influent and secondary effluent (i.e., pre-UV disinfection) correlated with antecedent rainfall conditions. The percent TOC and DOC removal through secondary treatment (i.e., from influent to effluent pre-UV) and the percent TOC and DOC removal through MP-UV disinfection (i.e., from effluent pre-UV to effluent post-UV) were compared and the latter approached 90 % through MP-UV disinfection during high antecedent rainfall conditions. Spectroscopy (UV, visible, or fluorescence) was performed on samples after filtration through 0.45 μm filters, i.e., the operationally defined DOC fraction of aquatic carbon. Scanning UV–visible spectra indicated transformation of an unidentified wastewater component into light-scattering entities regardless of antecedent rainfall conditions. The types of organic carbon (diagenetic, biogenic, or anthropogenic) and the significance of wet weather are discussed. An organic carbon contribution via infiltration and inflow was attributed as a source-of-interest in this research.
16. Phenotyping urban built and natural environments with high-resolution satellite images and unsupervised deep learning
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 893, 1 October 2023, 164794
Cities in the developing world are expanding rapidly, and undergoing changes to their roads, buildings, vegetation, and other land use characteristics. Timely data are needed to ensure that urban change enhances health, wellbeing and sustainability. We present and evaluate a novel unsupervised deep clustering method to classify and characterise the complex and multidimensional built and natural environments of cities into interpretable clusters using high-resolution satellite images. We applied our approach to a high-resolution (0.3 m/pixel) satellite image of Accra, Ghana, one of the fastest growing cities in sub-Saharan Africa, and contextualised the results with demographic and environmental data that were not used for clustering. We show that clusters obtained solely from images capture distinct interpretable phenotypes of the urban natural (vegetation and water) and built (building count, size, density, and orientation; length and arrangement of roads) environment, and population, either as a unique defining characteristic (e.g., bodies of water or dense vegetation) or in combination (e.g., buildings surrounded by vegetation or sparsely populated areas intermixed with roads). Clusters that were based on a single defining characteristic were robust to the spatial scale of analysis and the choice of cluster number, whereas those based on a combination of characteristics changed based on scale and number of clusters. The results demonstrate that satellite data and unsupervised deep learning provide a cost-effective, interpretable and scalable approach for real-time tracking of sustainable urban development, especially where traditional environmental and demographic data are limited and infrequent.
INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Fenton oxidation system for treating petroleum-contaminated solid waste: Advances and prospects
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 893, 1 October 2023, 164793
Both normal activities and accidental spills in the petroleum industry generate solid waste that contain petroleum-contaminated pollutants (referred to as “petroleum-contaminated solid waste”), which mainly include petroleum-contaminated soil, petroleum sludge, and petroleum-based drill cuttings. At present, most relevant studies focus solely on the treatment effects of the Fenton system alone in treating a specific type of petroleum-contaminated solid waste, and systematic studies on the influencing factors, degradation pathways, and applicability of the system are lacking. For this reason, this paper reviews the application and development of the Fenton system to treat petroleum-contaminated solid waste in the period from 2010 to 2021 and summarizes its basic properties. It also compares the influencing factors (e.g., Fenton reagent dosage, initial pH, and catalyst properties), degradation mechanisms, and reagent costs of conventional Fenton, heterogeneous Fenton, chelate-modified Fenton, and electro-Fenton systems for the treatment of petroleum-contaminated solid waste. In addition, the main degradation pathways and intermediate toxicities of typical petroleum hydrocarbons in Fenton systems are analyzed and evaluated, and development directions for the further application of Fenton systems in treating petroleum-contaminated solid waste are proposed.
2. Impacts of industrial production and air quality by remote sensing on nitrogen dioxide concentration and related effects: An econometric approach
Environmental Pollution, Volume 334, 1 October 2023, 122212
The high concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is to blame for West Java’s poor Air Quality Index (AQI). So, this study aims to determine the influence of industrial activity as reflected by the value of its imports and exports, wind speed, and ozone (O3) on the high concentration of tropospheric NO2. The method used is the econometric Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach to capture the existence of a short-term and long-term relationship between tropospheric NO2 and its predictor variables. The data used in this study is in the form of monthly time series data for the 2018–2022 period sourced from satellite images (Sentinel-5P and ECMWF Climate Reanalysis) and publications of the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS-Statistics Indonesia). The results explained that, in the short-term, tropospheric NO2 and O3 influence each other as they would in a photochemical reaction. In the long-term, exports from the industrial sector and wind speed have a significant effect on the concentration of tropospheric NO2. The short-term effect occurs directly in the first month after the shock, while the long-term effect occurs in the second month after the shock. Wind gusts originating from industrial areas cause air conditions to be even more alarming because tropospheric NO2 pollutants spread throughout the region in West Java. Based on the coefficient correlation result, the high number of pneumonia cases is one of the impacts caused by air pollution.
3. Environmental co-benefits of energy recovery from wastewater of typical industrial sectors from life cycle perspective: Regional potentials in China
Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 293, 1 October 2023, 117450
High organic content industrial wastewater (HOCIW) from typical industrial sectors has a tremendous potential for energy recovery. The energy recovery capacity and contribution to mitigating multiple environmental impacts synergistically at regional scale remain elusive. Targeting HOCIW from typical industrial sectors (including Food products, Textiles, Leather & clothing products, Paper & printing, and Pharmaceuticals) in 30 Chinese provincial regions, the energy input and output, as well as direct and indirect environmental impacts in the background scenario (sequencing batch reactor system) and foreground scenario (expanded granular sludge blanket + biogas power generation system) are evaluated. By comparing two scenarios, the environmental co-benefits of energy recovery from HOCIW are unraveled from life cycle and multi-impact category perspectives. Results indicate that Freshwater eutrophication and Marine eutrophication are the most remarkable impact categories (with the normalized score of impact potential greater than 0.005), followed by Global warming and Stratospheric ozone depletion (within 0.001–0.002). Attributed to power and fertilizer offsets, seven out of eight impact categories can be mitigated, except Freshwater eutrophication. There is the most remarkable mitigation effect on Fine particulate matter formation, ranging from −526.7% to −786.0% across regions. Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian are more prominent in terms of the impact potential and energy and resource recovery potentials. The findings can provide support for regional policy design regarding wastewater treatment considering energy recovery and environmental impact mitigation.
4. Insights into the recent advances of agro-industrial waste valorization for sustainable biogas production
Bioresource Technology, Available online 13 October 2023, 129829
Recent years have seen a transition to a sustainable circular economy model that uses agro-industrial waste biomass waste to produce energy while reducing trash and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an alternative option in the hunt for clean and renewable fuels. Different approaches are employed to transform the LCB to biogas, including pretreatment, anaerobic digestion (AD), and biogas upgradation to biomethane. To maintain process stability and improve AD performance, machine learning (ML) tools are being applied in real-time monitoring, predicting, and optimizing the biogas production process. An environmental life cycle assessment approach for biogas production systems is essential to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. The current review presents a detailed overview of the utilization of agro-waste for sustainable biogas production. Different methods of waste biomass processing and valorization are discussed that contribute towards developing an efficient agro-waste to biogas-based circular economy.
5. The impact of double carbon goals on industrial structure in a region of China
Computers & Industrial Engineering, Volume 184, October 2023, 109574
As an extensive and profound systemic change, carbon emission reduction is driving the reform and transformation of China’s economic and industrial structure. Firstly, a variable fractional order model is used to predict carbon emissions under different carbon reduction policy scenarios. Based on the analysis of different scenarios, the non equal order adjacent accumulation model was established to analyze regional industrial structure. Empirical research finds that with the continuous increase of policy strength, the proportion of primary industry structure and tertiary industry structure in Hebei will increase, and the proportion of secondary industry structure will decrease; the proportion of primary industry and secondary industry in Tianjin will increase, and the proportion of tertiary industry will decrease; the industry structure in Beijing is relatively stable. Therefore, the implementation of double carbon target should be scientifically judged and advance gradually in regular order, and an implementation strategy of multi-dimensional balance and dynamic optimization should be sought. The research conclusions are conducive to providing scientific guidance for policy formulation and helping to achieve the double carbon goal.
6. Can industrial intelligence promote green transformation? New insights from heavily polluting listed enterprises in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138550
The main challenge for sustainable development in China lies in promoting the green transformation of enterprises. Industrial intelligence provides a novel avenue for this shift towards sustainability. This study uses a database of Chinese A-share listed companies from 2012 to 2019, focusing on 813 high-polluting firms, to examine the impact of industrial intelligence on green transformation through a two-way fixed effects model. The findings reveal that industrial intelligence significantly facilitates the green transition of businesses; however, these effects substantially vary across various businesses. Honestly, state-owned enterprises, manufacturing sectors, and energy production and supply industries documented more pronounced impacts. Government interference hinders the positive effects of industrial intelligence on green transformation, while marketization enhancement has a positive moderating effect. In contrast, the financial market’s moderating effect is negligible. It suggests that governments would increase the use of industrial intelligence, reduce government involvement, optimize financial markets, and enhance marketization to encourage green development in firms.
7. Target and nontarget analysis of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in surface water, groundwater and sediments of three typical fluorochemical industrial parks in China
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 460, 15 October 2023, 132411
The objectives of this study were to identify both legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from three typical fluoridated industrial parks (FIPs) in China, and to assess their environmental occurrence and fate. Complementary suspect target and nontarget screening were implemented, and a total of 111 emerging PFAS were identified. Based on the multi-mass scale analysis, 25 emerging PFAS were identified for the first time, including 24 per- and polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs) and 1 ultra-short chlorinated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (Cl-PFCAs, C2), with a maximum percentage of 48.2 % in nontarget PFAS (exclude target PFAS). The composition of PFAS identified in different media was influenced by functional groups, carbon chain length, substituents and ether bond insertion, with poly-hydrogen substituted being preferably in water and a more diverse pattern of PFECAs in sediments. The patterns of PFAS homologs revealed distinct differences among the three typical FIPs in the shift of PFAS production patterns. The C4-PFAS and short-chain carboxylic acids (≤C6) were the main PFAS in the Fuxin and Changshu, respectively. In contrast, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8) remained dominant in Zibo, and the highest point concentrations in water and sediment were up to 706 µg/L and 553 µg/g, respectively.
8. A critical review on separation and extraction of scandium from industrial wastes: Methods, difficulties, and mechanism
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 5, October 2023, 111068
Scandium (Sc) is a typical dispersed rare earth element. The sources of Sc mainly include primary sources(natural ores) and secondary sources(some industrial by-products or industrial waste), mainly distributed in Russia, China and Australia. The demand of scandium for aerospace, metallurgy and laser industry is increasing year by year, which results in the shortage of Sc sources. Natural Sc sources are rare because Sc rarely accumulates into independent ores and deposits in geological processes Fortunately, it has been found that large amounts of Sc are also found in industrial wastes, which should be turned into another huge stock of Sc if it can be effectively separated and extracted from these wastes. However, to separate and extract scandium effectively is still a challenging problem due to low scandium content, complex production process and low productivity. Many efforts had been done by researchers in the past 30 years. In this review, we summarizes the typical methods of extracting scandium including solvent extraction, ion exchange, solid phase adsorption, etc. and discussed the difficulties in practical applications and separation mechanisms.
This review demonstrates many outstanding research achievements have been reported in recent years that solvent extraction technology occupies a dominant position in the separation of scandium, and ion exchange and solid phase adsorption also gradually show their respective advantages. As one of the latest research advances in solid phase adsorption, surface ion imprinting materials can combine the advantages of carrier and scandium in solvent extraction technology for the surface modification of adsorption materials. This method can solve the difficulties of selective adsorption, which is worth continuous attention in future studies.
9. How does the transition policy of mineral resource-exhausted cities affect the process of industrial upgrading? New empirical evidence from China
Resources Policy, Volume 86, Part B, October 2023, 104226
Recognizing the accelerated depletion of mineral resources such as coal, metallurgy, and petroleum in resource-depleted cities is merely a matter of time. Consequently, the industrial restructuring and upgrading of these cities have become a high-priority concern in ensuring sustainable natural resource utilization and environmental sustainability. In this way, this paper is about the mineral resource-exhausted city transition program. It uses China’s county and enterprise data from 2004 to 2013 and a staggered difference-in-difference model to figure out how the supportive policy affected industrial upgrading. Our findings indicate that transition policies pose a significant promoting effect on stimulating the industrial upgrading process in Chinese mineral resource-exhausted cities. Specifically, this positive effect is more pronounced in counties characterized by high levels of energy efficiency and environmental performance. Carrying out robustness tests, the preliminary regression results are verified. Heterogeneous influences have been partially established among cities with distinct geographical regions and resource endowment attributes. Further mechanism analysis reveals that heightened cost pressures, incentives for innovation, economic performance attractiveness, and improvements in energy efficiency constitute the primary micro-channels driving industrial upgrading throughout the sample period. This study holds significant global relevance for the sustainable management of natural resources and the sustainable development of mineral resource-exhausted cities in similar emerging economies.
10. The impact of air pollution on startups and structural transformation: Evidence from newly registered enterprises in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 422, 10 October 2023, 138537
This paper examines the effects of air pollution on the number of startups and industry structures in China, using data on startups in various industries and air pollution at the county level. The research shows that air pollution has a significant negative impact on the number of startups, with a 1 μg/m3 rise in PM2.5 causing a 1.83% drop in the number of startups. The tertiary industry is most negatively impacted by air pollution, with a 1 μg/m3 rise in PM2.5 resulting in a 2.70% decline in the number of startups in this sector. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that sub-industries including scientific research and technical services, education, health and public services, and culture and entertainment are those that are most negatively impacted by air pollution. Nonlinear analysis shows that the harmful consequences of air pollution only become noticeable when the concentration of pollutants exceeds a particular point. Further research reveals that air pollution drives the relocation of entrepreneurial activity, which may be a significant influencing factor for local startups. This paper fills an academic gap on air pollution’s effects on local economies and industrial structures. The results show that the natural environment is a crucial component of the business environment and has a significant practical impact on boosting regional economic vitality and promoting the transformation of industrial structures.
11. Study on the impact of industrial structure upgrading on soil conservation in the Yellow River basin counties
Ecological Indicators, Volume 154, October 2023, 110683
The problem of soil and water loss in the Yellow River Basin has been impacting the local high-quality development. The upgrading of industrial structure is a method to alleviate the issue of soil and water loss. In order to address the soil and water loss problem in the Yellow River Basin, this study investigates the internal mechanisms of how the upgrading of industrial structure impacts soil conservation, promoting coordinated development in the region. This research utilizes the entropy weight method, the InVEST model, and the fixed spatial Durbin model to explore how the greening, upgrading, and rationalization of industries affect the average soil conservation. The main conclusions of this study are: (1) For every 0.1 increase in the greening index, it effectively increases the local average soil conservation by 17.25 (t/hm2) and 49.61 (t/hm2). It is necessary to reduce the emission of pollutants in the upstream region in order to effectively improve the average soil conservation; (2) For every 0.1 decrease in the industry upgrading index, it will lead to a decrease in the average soil conservation in surrounding areas by 2.82 (t/hm2). Only by continuously increasing the financial investment in the upgrading of industries in the downstream region can the average soil conservation be increased. (3) An increase in the rationalization of industries in the upstream and midstream regions will lead to a decrease in the average soil conservation in surrounding areas, while in the downstream region, it will increase the local average soil conservation.
12. An efficiency-driven approach for global ecological industrial parks
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 424, 20 October 2023, 138837
Eco-industrial parks (EIPs) are an innovative solution for balancing industrial development and environmental sustainability. This study presents a novel three-step model for the comprehensive performance analysis of EIPs, employing a dataset comprising 133 EIPs from various countries worldwide. The primary objectives include understanding EIP operational efficiency, proposing a benchmark-learning roadmap, and analyzing the interplay of the environmental, economic, and societal factors influencing EIP performance. The findings suggest that an EIP’s size does not significantly influence its operational efficiency, offering strategic insights for businesses that are considering a transition to EIPs. The benchmark-learning roadmap identifies suitable reference parks for each EIP, providing practical guidelines for performance enhancement. Furthermore, it underscores the crucial roles of energy management, inter-enterprise resource exchange, and social welfare services in bolstering EIPs’ economic benefits. These insights present compelling evidence of the potential for symbiotic relationships between industrial growth and sustainability within an EIP framework. In conclusion, this study serves as a comprehensive blueprint for EIP management, suggesting that EIPs can effectively drive sustainable industrial development without compromising economic performance. These findings have important implications for policymakers, business leaders, and EIP managers regarding the pursuit of sustainable industrial practices.
13. An integrated eco-friendly and efficient approach towards heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater and co-generating bio-oil using wheat straw via hydrothermal liquefaction
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 5, October 2023, 110217
Industrialization and population growth have adversely affected our environment. Heavy metal-contaminated industrial wastewater and the extensive use of fossils fuel are the prime reason for the degradation of the environment. In this research work, removal of heavy metals (Ni, Fe, and Cr) was achieved from synthetically prepared wastewater in a two-step process, i.e., metal-impregnation and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). In the first stage, metal removal was investigated via batch impregnation process using wheat straw by varying parameters such as pH (2 − 12), biomass dosages (0.5 – 1.5 g), and contact time (up to 48 h). The maximum metal removal achieved at this stage was 55 – 65 % (Ni – 58.78 ± 1.5 %, Fe – 62.55 ± 1.8 %, and Cr – 63.51 ± 1.7 %). In the second stage, almost complete removal of heavy metals (99.9 %) was accomplished during the hydrothermal liquefaction of metal-loaded wheat straw and filtered wastewater (used as solvent) collected after the biosorption process. The HTL experiment of metal-impregnated wheat straw was performed by varying temperatures, biomass–to–wastewater ratio, and residence time. Nano-metals (oxides/hydroxides) were formed in the 10–50 nm range during the impregnation process, enhancing the HTL product’s yield and selectivity. MP-AES analyzed the heavy metals concentration, and XRD confirmed the formation/reduction of nano-metals. TEM and FE-SEM analysis illustrated the particle size and morphology. CHNS, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis identified the heavy and light bio-oil compositions. In the present study, we have addressed the issues of heavy metal removal and fulfilling the energy demand gap via a greener and eco-friendly approach with the concept of waste–treat–waste and waste–to–energy. The present method provides an efficient outcome and can be a sustainable solution for the two prominent issues.
14. How do the National Eco-Industrial Demonstration Parks affect urban total factor energy efficiency? Evidence from a quasi-natural experiment
Energy Economics, Volume 126, October 2023, 107018
This study utilizes a non-radial Dynamic Slacks-Based Measure (DSBM) model to dynamically assess the total factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in each city using panel data from 265 prefecture-level cities in China from 2000 to 2018. We use the policy of building National Eco-Industrial Demonstration Parks (NEDPs) as a quasi-natural experiment and use the staggered difference-in-differences (DID) model to determine the policy’s net impact on the urban TFEE. We find that the construction of NEDPs has greatly improved the urban TFEE, and the development of urban green finance has a positive regulatory effect on this impact. According to a heterogeneity analysis, the construction of NEDPs is more favourable to improving the TFEE of cities with local environmental regulations, and a high degree of openness. Further inspection of the mechanism test demonstrates that the economic agglomeration effect, the structural upgrading effect, and the innovation network effect are the transmission channels of NEDPs to facilitate the TEFF. In addition, the extended analyses show that the positive impact of NEDPs on promoting the TFEE stays robust under the consideration of heterogeneous treatment effect.
15. Study of the performance of lignin from cashew apple bagasse (Anarcadium occidentale L) as adsorbent for industrial synthetic dye
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 11, Issue 5, October 2023, 110430
The present work investigated the use of lignin from cashew apple bagasse and the lignin-magnetic nanoparticles composite in the removal of industrial textile dyes using the reactive turquoise blue dye, also named of reactive blue 21, as a model, and a real effluent. The adsorbents were characterized through FTIR and SEM-EDS. The influence of the pH, dye concentration, amount of adsorbent and temperature was evaluated in the adsorption process, analyzing the kinetic behavior and the isotherm of the process. The best adsorption results were obtained using lignin-magnetic nanoparticles (Lig-MNPs) as adsorbent. The acid pH favored the adsorption process and the amount of adsorbent that presented the best results was 8 mg/mL (approx. 70% of removal). The kinetic data and isotherm were best represented by the pseudo-second order model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The results obtained in this adsorption study demonstrated that the Lig-MNP composite poses as a potential adsorbent, presenting a removal percentage of up to 95% of the turquoise blue reactive dye; it can be reused for up to three cycles and its magnetic characteristics facilitate the separation process, reducing energy costs with filtration or centrifugation process. Also, Lig-MNPs adsorbs 58% (7.3 mg/g) of the concentration of dyes present in a real industrial effluent. The results obtained in this adsorption study compared with the results available in the literature demonstrate that the Lig-MNPs composite presents itself as a potential adsorbent of reactive dyes, and its magnetic characteristics facilitate the separation process, reducing energy costs.
16. An analysis of sub-sectoral level carbon budget allocation for India’s iron and steel sector
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 421, 1 October 2023, 138462
The global carbon budget, defined as the cumulative amount of permissible carbon emissions to meet the temperature targets, is widely used to study climate change. This carbon budget is rapidly decreasing, with a high probability of it getting exhausted in the coming few decades. The extensive use of non-renewable resources has resulted in a rapid depletion of the global carbon budget. Currently, there is a lack of studies assessing the long-term impact of various sectors on the rapidly decreasing global carbon budget. The recent budget estimates have further reduced by 200 GtCO2 in the past decade, creating conflicts among the nations towards getting a higher share of the remaining budget.
This study focuses on allocating the global carbon budget to a sub-sectoral level for India’s iron and steel sector. First, the global carbon budget is allocated using different approaches, giving India a range of carbon budgets. Further, the allocation is done to the sectoral and sub-sectoral levels to obtain the benchmark targets between 2020 and 2050 from the national carbon budget. Projections have been made for the production capacity and the expected emissions till 2050 for India’s iron and steel sector using three scenarios based on specific CO2 emission reduction. The results indicate that the carbon emissions for the “specific CO2 emission stagnation” scenario for 2 °C temperature target are 66% to 726% above the benchmark carbon budget allocated to the iron and steel sector using different allocation methods. The study also shows the benchmark carbon budget of the iron and steel sector for the 2 °C, 1.7 °C, and 1.5 °C temperature targets will deplete between 2023 and 2046 for the different emission scenarios.
CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Nguồn: Báo Môi Trường và Đô Thị